Beware of mushrooms
that do not have true pits or cavities and are smooth, brain-like and shiny. These spring
mushrooms, often called "False Morels" or "Early Morels" are from
either the genera Verpa or Gyromitra and though there are people who eat
these mushrooms without incident, there have been fatalities from them as well. Clearly,
consumption of any mushrooms from these genera can be a very dangerous practice.
In older texts Verpa bohemica and V. conica are listed as
edible but new evidence is contradictory. Newer texts list Verpa bohemica (the
Wrinkled Thimble Cap) as poisonous and best avoided. Symptoms include severe stomach
cramps and a loss of muscle coordination.
The other so-called "Early Morels" of the genus Gyromitra,
G. esculenta and G. infula contain the toxin Gyromitrin, AKA:
monomethylhydrazine. Related species including G. gigas, G. korfii and the genera Verpa
and Helvella may also contain traces of hydrazines. Believe it or not, monomethylhydrazine
is a key component of rocket fuel. Eating mushrooms containing hydrazines raw has caused
many documented fatalities (mostly in Europe.) Cooking and/or drying can remove the
volatile Gyromitrin poison, hence people have eaten these mushrooms for years with no ill
effects. BUT... cooking Gyromitra esculenta (pictured at
top left) can release enough
toxin into the air that simply sampling the aroma of your saut pan can lead to severe
poisoning or even death.
BEST BET WITH GYROMITRA, VERPA AND HELVELLA:
Don't bother with any of them!
Cooking may not remove all of the toxin and this could result in liver damage over a
period of years.
Get a good field guide and stick to the genus Morchella (the "real Morels"!)
...very safe, and very delicious.
Here's a discussion on this subject from
our Forager's Forum.
Notes: Field Guide Recommendations - David Fischer's Edible Wild Mushrooms of North America is
an excellent "field to kitchen guide," including recipes and storage techniques.
Mushrooms Demystified - by
David Arora provides identification keys, photos and descriptions of a wide variety of
edible and non-edible mushroom species and The Audubon
Society field guide to North American Mushrooms is "the old
standard" of mushroom field guides.